量具的相关概念

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量具的相关概念

时间:2011-10-16 09:35 作者:admin 点击:

精度:
        量块按其制造精度分为五个“级”:00、0、1、2和3级。00级精度最高,3级最低。分级的依据是量块长度的极限偏差和长度变动量允许值。量块生产企业大都按“级”向市场销售量块,此时用户只能按量块的标称尺寸使用量块,这样必然受到量块中心长度实际偏差的影响,将反制造误差带入测量结果。
测量误差: 
        由于测量过程的不完善而产生的测量误差,将导致测得值的分散入不确定。因此,在测量过程中,正确分析测量误差的性质及其产生的原因,对测得值进行必要的数据处理,获得满足一定要求的置信水平的测量结果,是十分重要的。
不确定度: 
        用标准偏差表示测量结果的不确定度,称为标准不确定度,按照评定方法不同,它可分为两类:用对一系列重复观测值进行统计分析以计算标准不确定度的方法,称为A类评定;用不同于统计分析的其他方法来评定标准不确定度,称为B类评定。
分辨率: 
        数字式量仪没有标尺或度盘,而与其相对应的为分辨率。分辨率是仪器显示的最末位数字间隔所代表的被测量值。
例子: 
        量块是一种平行平面端度量具,又称块规。它是保证长度量值统一的重要常用实物量具。除了作为工作基准之外,量块还可以用来调整仪器、机床或直接测量零件。 
        在量值传递工作中,为了消除量块制造误差对测量的影响,常常按量块检定后得到的实际尺寸使用。各种不同精度的检定方法可以得到具有不同测量不确定度的量块,并依此划分量块的等别,如图1-1所示。检定后的量块可得到每量块的中心长度的实际偏差,显然同一套量块若按“等”使用可以得到更高的测量精度(较小的测量不确定度)。但由于按“等”使用比较麻烦,且检定成本高,固在生产现场仍按“级”使用。

Accuracy:

LiangKuai according to the manufacturing precision is divided into five "level" : 00, 0, 1, 2, and 3 grade. 00 levels of accuracy, the highest grade 3 minimum. On the basis of classification is LiangKuai the tolerances of the length and the length of the allowable value of change. LiangKuai production enterprise mostly press "level" to market sales LiangKuai, this time the user can only nominal size of each piece of LiangKuai use, so inevitable LiangKuai center by the length of the influence of the actual deviation, manufacturing error of measured results into reverse.

The measurement error:

Because of the measurement process is not perfect and produce the error of measurement, and will lead to the measured value scattered into not sure. Therefore, in the measurement process, the correct analysis of the nature of the measurement error and the reasons, and the value of the necessary data processing, access to meet the requirements of the certain confidence level measurement results, is very important.

Uncertainty:

Use standard deviation said the uncertainty of measurement results, known as the standard uncertainty, according to the evaluation method is different, it can be divided into two classes: with A series of repeat observation value of statistical analysis on the calculation of standard uncertainty method, known as A kind of evaluation; Different from the statistical analysis with other methods to assess the standard uncertainty, called B class assess.

Resolution:

Digital quantity meter no ruler or degrees set, while and the corresponding for resolution. Resolution is that the least likely of the instrument digital interval represent be measured value.

Example:

LiangKuai is a kind of parallel plane of the measuring tools, and KuaiGui says. It is an important guarantee of the unified length of commonly used real measuring tool. In addition to work as a benchmark, outside LiangKuai can also be used to adjust the instrument, the machine or direct measurement of parts.

In the dissemination work, in order to eliminate LiangKuai manufacturing error of measurement, the influence of the amount after verification of often get use actual size. All kinds of different precision of the verification method can get with different measurement uncertainty LiangKuai, according to this division of LiangKuai etc don't, as shown in figure 1-1 below. After verification of the LiangKuai available LiangKuai length of each of the actual deviation, center apparently the same set of LiangKuai if press "waiting" use can get higher measuring precision (smaller measurement uncertainty). But because the press "and" use more troublesome, and high cost, solid verification in the production site still press "level" use.
 

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