量具的用途分类 特点

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量具的用途分类 特点

时间:2011-10-16 09:02 作者:admin 点击:

 在古代,人类为了测量田地等就已经进行长度测量,最初是以人的手、足等作为长度的单位。但人的手、足大小不一,在商品交换中遇到了困难,于是便出现了以物体作为测量单位,如公元前2400年出现的古埃及腕尺,中国商朝出现的象牙尺和公元九年制造的新莽铜卡尺等。

    在5000多年以前,古埃及尼罗河每年都要洪水泛滥,淹没大片的田地,洪水带来的泥土覆盖在田地上,使原有的田地界限无法辨认,所以每当洪水退去以后,人们就要重新丈量土地,于是产生了最早的几何学。

    测量长度的方法有很多,用手掌,脚步等。但是这些方法在测量结果不需要很精确下使用。目前,世界上主要用各种量尺来测量长度。常见的量尺有直尺,卷尺游标卡尺和测量器等。游标卡尺适合测量一般尺难以测量的圆形物品,零件的孔径,厚薄等。精密度较高。长度的计量单位是米,记作M。1978年,法国规定:以地球北极与南极之间相距长度的千万分之一为一米。这项规定经过推广,现已作为国际通用的长度单位。

    量具按其用途可分为三大类:

    1、标准量具。指用作测量或检定标准的量具。如量块、多面棱体、表面粗糙度比较样块等。

    2、通用量具(或称万能量具)。一般指由量具厂统一制造的通用性量具。如直尺、平板、角度块、卡尺等。

    3、专用量具(或称非标量具)。指专门为检测工件某一技术参数而设计制造的量具。如内外沟槽卡尺、钢丝绳卡尺、步距规等。

 

In ancient times, humans in order to measure fields etc have length measurement, was initially based on man's hand, foot as the unit of length. But the people of the hands and feet in size, in the Commodity Exchange in trouble, so she appeared as the measuring unit, objects such as 2400 BC in ancient Egypt, China in the shang dynasty wrist feet of ivory feet and the nine-year made XinMang copper caliper, etc.

In 5000 DuoNian before, ancient Egypt each year to the Nile flooding and flooded large fields, the soil of floods in the fields, covering the fields of original boundaries cannot recognize, so every time recede later, people will anew measure land, and produced the first geometry.

Measure the length of the many methods, steps with the palm, etc. But these methods in the measurement results do not need to use very accurate. At present, the major world with all sorts of measurements to measure length. Common measurements have ruler, measuring tape vernier gauges can and the measurement. Vernier caliper is suitable for measuring general feet is difficult to measure round items, components of the aperture, thickness, etc. Precision is higher. The measuring unit of length is meters, remember as M. In 1978, the French regulation: with the earth between the North Pole and the South Pole apart one over ten million of the length for one meter. This rule, is now as a promotion after the length of the general international unit.

According to its use measuring tools can be divided into three categories:

1, standard measuring tool. Refers to the standard used as measurement or verification measuring tool. If LiangKuai, many faces, edges of body surface roughness comparison specimens, etc.

2, general measure (or said that universal measuring tools). General refers to the unity of the measuring factory made general measuring tool. If a ruler, flat, Angle, caliper, etc. Of

3, special measure (or says non-standard measuring tools). Refers to the special for inspecting a technical parameters and the design and manufacture measuring tool. Such as internal and external groove caliper, wire rope caliper, steps from the rules, etc.
 

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